Aldon D. Morris thing is certain, the pre-civil rights movement era would stand in stark contrast ity and labeled them as an inferior race (see Morris ). The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement The Scholar Denied. Aldon Douglas Morris (born June 15, ) is an African-American professor of sociology and. All rights reserved. A RETROSPECTIVE ON THE CIVIL. RIGHTS MOVEMENT: Political and. Intellectual Landmarks. Aldon D. Morris. Department of Sociology.
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The Free Press, The Origins aldpn the Civil Rights Movement: Morris, is a study of the first decade of the civil rights movement from Morris also movsment to analyze the role in the movement of black masses, showing their organization and interconnectedness, thus refuting the popular view of unrelated spontaneous actions by various groups. Morris describes the pervasive and oppressive system of segregation imposed on blacks in the South, which included personal, economic, and political oppression.
Aldon Morris – Wikipedia
However, the social network connecting the churches in a mass movement was facilitated by alliances among the clergymen heading the various churches through informal associations and formal bodies such as the National Baptist Convention. Prior to the start of the modern civil rights movement, the dominant black protest organization was the NAACP, founded in by black and white intellectuals to fight for equal rights for black Americans. Morris traces the beginning of the civil rights movement to the mass boycott of segregated buses by the black community in Baton Rouge in June This effort required a high degree of planning and organization.
Jemison, and was mobilized through local black churches, which formed the Urban Defense League, an umbrella organization. The Baton Rouge boycott was a mass, church-based, direct-action movement guided by a new organization of organizations.
Board of Education in May The Montgomery bus boycott began on December 1,when Mrs. Rosa Parks defied local segregation laws by refusing to give up her seat in the front of the bus to a white man.
Righrs to popular accounts, this was not a spontaneous action by an individual acting without forethought.
Other movement centers developed in Tallahassee and Birmingham. It was a church-related protest organization of organizations. No individuals, but only churches or civic leagues, could be members.
King introduced an activist social gospel in a refocused militant view of religion. However, massive white resistance using poll taxes, literacy tests, and other obstructive tactics, resulted in failure of the movement. It was a Northern organization founded in by pacifist students at the University of Chicago, headed by James Farmer. It was a secular organization with a paternalistic attitude, seeking to take blacks out of their ghettoes into integrated situations.
The Highlander Folk School was founded in in the mountains of Tennessee to assist the oppressed by training potential leaders. Rosa Parks visited there four months before the Montgomery bus boycott. The tactic of sit-ins first occurred in Oklahoma in During the next two months students were involved in lunch counter sit-ins in approximately seventy Southern cities.
The next major civil rights confrontation occurred in when integrated groups boarded buses to attempt to desegregate buses and terminals in the South through Freedom Rides. They were attacked savagely in Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. They galvanized the black community for protest and assumed the character of a mass movement.
In the fall ofan ambitious movement was launched in Albany, Georgia, with the goal of ending all forms of racial domination in that city. Martin Luther King participated and mobilized the black community to protest and fill the jails. The white power structure defeated the movement through a devious strategy of making promises they never intended to keep, but the movement became a model for other black communities and showed the need for good organization.
Origins of the Civil Rights Movement – The Mason Historiographiki
Morris concludes his story with the notorious confrontation in Birmingham in Martin Luther King and the SCLC set out to desegregate lunch counters and public facilities in downtown department stores, establish fair hiring procedures in retail stores and city departments, obtain access to city parks, and establish a timetable for school desegregation.
Hundreds of demonstrators went to jail,including Dr.
Morris does an excellent job of making his case that the modern civil rights movement was a well planned, organized, and coordinated series of confrontations by blacks against the white power structure in the South. He refutes the movemrnt that the widespread demonstrations were uncoordinated, spontaneous actions of omvement groups with local grievances.
The NAACP pursued a legal strategy of forcing change through court decisions, but this was a slow process that did not satisfy blacks looking for more immediate relief from the oppression of segregation.
The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement: Black Communities Organizing for Change
Morris shows how black churches provided organization and leadership to the movement. The Supreme Court outlawed segregation in schools but neglected to say how integration would be accomplished or when. The Eisenhower administration refused to invoke federal power and instead called for state and local action. Meanwhile, President Kennedy “continued appointing Southern racist federal judges, who movfment their power morri impede the movement. Retrieved from ” http: Views Page Discussion View source History.
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